As cities get busier, so personal transport will have to get smaller to make best use of the available space.
Toyota's solution is the three-wheeled, electric i-Road concept Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV). First shown at the Paris Motor Show in 2014, the compact i-Road has been undergoing trials in Europe and Japan.
The i-Road has been part of the 'Ha:mo by Cité lib' connected mobility pilot public transport scheme in Grenoble. The three year project encourages commuters to use the PMV for the first or last few miles of their journey, linked into public transport - trains, buses and trams - for the majority of their trip.
Users must be 18 or older, hold a valid driving licence and be registered with Cité-lib. A smartphone app enables them to find the nearest free vehicle, which they can pick up and drop off at any of the 27 charging stations in Grenoble.
Further trials have been launched in Shibuya, Tokyo, following official type certification from the Japanese government for road use. The i-Road will join the Open Road project and rather than the ad hoc access model of the Grenoble project, cars will be loaned for one month to motorists to assess how i-Road can meet different mobility requirements.
Toyota i-Road measures 2,345m long, 1,455mm high and 870mm wide - so up to four i-Roads can be parked in a single standard-sized parking bay. A lithium-ion battery powers a pair of 1.9kW electric motors mounted in the front wheels, to give a range of around 30 miles - while a full recharge from a conventional household power supply takes just three hours.